He was born at Riese, near Venice, the son of a postman and studied at Treviso, Padua, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1858. His first assignment was chaplain at Tombolo for nine years and then arch-priest of Salzano from 1867 to 1875, a large borough of the Diocese of Treviso. Here he restored the church, and provided for the enlargement and maintenance of the hospital on his own development and distinguished himself by his abnegation during the cholera outbreak.
Sarto was next named Bishop of Mantua in 1884, then a hotbed of socialism and agnosticism. Here he established a reputation for able administration and uncompromising loyalty to the principles of the Church. His chief task in this new position was for the formation of the clergy at the seminary, where he taught dogmatic and moral theology. He required that the doctrine and method of St. Thomas to be followed, and to many of the poorer students he gave copies of the "Summa Theologica." He also cultivated the Gregorian Chant in company with the seminarians.
At the Secret Consistory in 1893, he was ordained Cardinal under the title of San Bernardo alle Terme by Pope Leo XIII, and three days later was preconized Patriarch of Venice. He retained the title of Apostolic Administrator of Mantua because is was forced to wait eighteen months before he was able to take possession of his new diocese. The Italian government refused for a year to grant Sarto his exequatur because it claimed the right to nominate the Venice Patriarch as it had been historically exercised by the Emperor of Austria. This matter was hotly debated in the newspapers and in pamphlets and the Government, by way of reprisal, also refused its exequatur to the other bishops who were appointed increasing the number of vacancies to thirty.
Italian Minister Crispi returned to power and he worked with the Holy See which raised the mission of Eritrea to the rank of an Apostolic Prefecture in favour of the Italian Capuchins. The Government, who held no opposition to Sarto personally, withdrew from its position.
|Cardinal Sarto, Patriarch of Venice|
On July 20th, 1903, Pope Leo XIII, died. The Cardinals met in conclave on Friday, July 31st, and remained in session four days balloting seven times. The final count showed that Sarto was elected by a vote of 55 out of a possible 60 votes. Cardinal Sarto was asked: "Do you accept the election?" He gave a reply in the affirmative. When asked what name he chose he replied: "Pius." All the throne canopies were then lowered, with the exception of that of the successful candidate. Then Prince Chigi, the master of the conclave, drew up the official act of the election and acceptance of the newly elected Pope. Pius then retired into a small room near the altar, where he dressed into the white robes of his office.
By the end of the year, Pope Pius X had abolished the traditional right of veto at the papal election, claimed by several European governments and exercised for the last time (by Austria) against Cardinal Rampolla, who otherwise might have been Pope instead of Sarto.
|Page one (bottom insert) on Page two (22 pages in total) of an unpublished Cardinal Sarto Immaculate Conception Homily from the Dr. Richard Pomazal Collection|
"By means of the human nature Christ assumed from Mary, he became the Redeemer of men. Mary, carrying the Savior within her, also carried all those whose life was contained in the life of the Savior. Therefore all the faithful united to Christ, are members of His body, of His flesh, and of His bones from the womb of Mary like a body united to its head."
Though a spiritual and mystical fashion, they are all children of Mary, and she is their Mother. Mother, spiritually indeed, but truly Mother of the members of Christ. The Marian encyclical pontifical motto, “Omnia restaurare in Christo” to restore everything in Christ, promoted the Ad diem illum devotions, stating, that
“no honouring is more pleasing to Mary, none She likes better, than the one in which we truly recognize and love Jesus.”This, according to Pius X, is the aim of Marian encyclical. The pronouncement of the Immaculate Conception was also a part of the Marian encyclical "But let people believe and confess that the Virgin Mary has been from the first moment of her conception preserved from all stain; and it is straightway necessary that they should admit both original sin and the rehabilitation of the human race by Jesus Christ, the Gospel, and the Church and the law of suffering” This Immaculate Conception dogma, Pius X decreed is the answer, by its obligation
“of recognizing in the Church a power before which (mankind ) not only has the will to bow, but the intelligence to subject itself.” Mary, “a virgin, was kept free from all stain of original sin because she was to be the Mother of Christ; and She was the Mother of Christ, so that the hope of everlasting happiness might be born again in our souls.”
"with the fulness of our Apostolic authority that the force of law be given to said Motu proprio and we do by our present handwriting impose its scrupulous observance upon all."
"The instruction of our Holy Father, Pius X., is clear and evident. It is directed to the whole Catholic world. No nation was exempted; and it has a juridical and authoritative binding character everywhere upon all Catholics. Unfortunately the edict of our Sovereign Pontiff has been received by many in this country with misgivings as to the probability of putting it into practice. I trust that this timidity will be overcome by the help and encouragement given by the happy results already in those churches where the Reverend Pastors, in obedience to the Pope's orders, have courageously undertaken the desired reform. What has already been accomplished since the publication of the Motu proprio, in some of our American cathedrals and churches, can be accomplished in others, if the pastors will only manifest sufficient zeal and set themselves to work with earnestness and perseverance for this much-needed reform."
“The order to be observed [in the new code] will more or less be as follows: being preceded by a general part consisting of the titles De Summa Trinitiate et fide catholica, De Constitutionibus, De Consuetudine, [and] De Rescriptis, there will be five books: De Personis, De Sacramentis; De Rebus et Locis sacris, De Delictis et Poenis, [and] De Iudiciis.”
The 1917 Code are immediately recognizable in this very early outline:
- Things (into which Gasparri had put Sacraments and Things and Sacred Places),
- Crimes and Penalties
- Trials (albeit reversing the order of the last two books during the codification process).
That left only Book I of the Pio-Benedictine Code, General Norms, unaccounted for, but recognizing such topics as Custom and Rescripts among his proposed preliminary “titles,”, it is easily surmised that these matters were grouped with others then unnamed in what finally emerged as Book I of the 1917 Code.
|Pietro Gasparri (May 5, 1852 – November 18, 1934) was a Roman Catholic cardinal, diplomat and politician in the Roman Curia and signatory of the Lateran Pacts|
Pope Pius X chose wisely as Perlegisti reads consistently with the idea that Gasparri had long wanted to work on a canonical codification project and had obviously given it much preliminary thought. The result was the collection, organization, and publication, for the first time, of all the laws of the Church as the Code of Canon Law.
|The Pontifical Biblical Institute is situated in Rome as an institution of the Holy See and administered by the Jesuits located at Via della Pilotta 25 - 00187 Roma, Telephe: + 39 06 6953611|
The Roman Catholic Church in the United States, up until 1910 had been under the Papal missionary jurisdiction of the Propaganda. Pius X raised the United States Roman Catholic Church to an autonomous position and created two additional American cardinals (Farley and O'Connell) to take their place beside Cardinal Gibbons.
By the Pope's last important official act (May 25, 1914), 13 candidates received were ordained as cardinals. Pius' death, on August 20th, 1914, was probably hastened by anxiety over the outbreak of the European War. During his illnesses, and especially the last one, his sisters, plain peasant women, cared for him devotedly.
|Saint Pope Pius X Tomb|
1. Sister Marie-Françoise Deperras, a nun who had bone cancer and was cured on 7 December 1928 during a novena in which a relic of Pius X was placed on her chest.Pope Pius XII conducted the canonization Mass at Saint Peter's Basilica before a crowd of about 800,000 Pius X became the first pope to be canonized since Pius V was canonized in 1712.
2. Sister Benedetta De Maria, who had cancer, and in a novena started in 1938, she eventually touched a relic statue of Pius X and was cured.
3. Francesco Belsami, an attorney from Naples who had a fatal pulmonary abscess, who was cured upon placing a picture of the Blessed Pope Pius X upon his chest.
4. Sister Maria Ludovica Scorcia, a nun who was afflicted with a serious neurotropic virus, and who, upon several novenas, was entirely cured.
Consult: A. M. J. J. Waal, Life of Pope Pius X, translated from the second German edition by J. W. Berg (Milwaukee, 1904); Angelo Marchesan, Pap.it Pius X in Leben unci Wort (Einsiedeln, 1906); The Programme of Modernism: Reply to Encyclical of Pius X (New York, 1908); also Life of Pope Pius X, published anonymously (ib., 1904), and Acta Pii PP. X and Acta Apostolicce Sedis (Vatican Press).
By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
Edited By: Naomi Yavneh Klos, Ph.D.